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重点、难点、考点及疑点注释
1. In 1972, it was discovered that they are endangered.(P119) 1972年,人们发现它们已经濒于灭绝。
was discovered是一般过去时的被动语态,discover“发现”,近义词为find和invent。
【友情链接】discover, invent与find
◎discover指发现过去所不知道的东西,新奇或意外的东西。
Coal was first discovered and used in China.
中国首先发现并使用了煤。
Columbus discovered America on the 12th of October, 1492.
1492年10月12日,哥伦布发现了美洲。
◎invent意为“发明”,即创造出以前从未存在过的东西。
Edison invented the electric lamp.爱迪生发明了电灯。
Radio had just been invented then.那时无线电刚刚发明出来。
◎find意为“找到”,侧重于找到过去丢失的人或物,但有时也表示凭经验或偶然发现了一种东西。
Today, corn is found all over the world.今天,全世界都有了玉米。
She found him a very good pupil.她发现他是个非常好的学生。
◎有时find和discover可以互相替代,意思相同。
His notebook was found/discovered in the desk.
他的笔记本是在课桌里找到的。
2. Some of the swamps have become polluted. (P119)一些沼泽地受到了污染。
have become polluted 中的become是连系动词,polluted是过去分词。这种“系动词+过去分词”结构,意思上也接近被动语态。
The slodier got wounded(接近were wounded)in the battle.
这几名战士在这场战斗中受了伤。
A few minutes later, the ground became/was covered with snow.
几分钟后地上尽是雪。
3. They provide homes for many endangered animals... (P120)他们为许多濒临灭绝的动物提供家园……
provide是及物动词,意为“提供”,“供给”。表示“提供……人……物件”是provide...with...;“提供……给……人”是provide...for...。
The school provides us with all the materials we need. (来源:英语交友 http://friends.englishcn.com)

学校提供我们所需要的一切资料。
We are provided with everything we need for work.
我们被提供了工作所需要的一切。
The school provides all the books we need for us.
学校为我们提供我们需要的书籍。
【友情提示】
◎ provide for是“供养”的意思。
He has a large family to provide for. 他要养活一个大家庭。
4.  ...and help to educate the public about caring for them. (P120)……并且帮助教育公众关爱它们。
care for表示“喜欢”,“关心”之意,后接名词或v-ing形式作宾语,take care of也有这个意思。
He cared nothing for skating. 他对滑冰没有兴趣。
In our class, we care for each other. 在我们班上,我们相互关心。
Maria takes good care of everybody. 玛丽亚很关心大家。
【友情链接】care for还可以表示“照顾”,“照料”,相当于take care of或look after。
At night he fed and cared for the cattle. 夜里他照料牲口,给牲口喂食。
You must care for yourselves.
=You must look after yourselves.
你们要照顾好自己。
The children are well cared for in the nurseries.
=The children are taken good care of in the nurseries.
孩子们在托儿所受到很好的照顾。
5. turn off the shower while you are washing your hair. (P121)洗头的时候关掉淋浴。
(1)turn off表示“关掉”,用在关掉收音机,煤气,自来水等场合。与其相关的几个短语是turn on“打开”,turn down“关小”,turn up“开大”。
(2)句中while与when是同义词,都可以用从属连词,引导状语从句表示时间,意思都是“当(在)……的时候”,但二者之间是有区别的。
【友情链接】while与when的用法
◎ when的含义是at or during the time that,既可用于指一点时间(从句的谓语动词需用终止性动词),也可用于指一段时间(从句的谓语动词用延续性动词),从句与主句里面的谓语动词所表示的动作或状态能同时发生,或一先一后发生。
He wants to help people when they are ill.
他想在人们生病的时候帮助他们。
When he got to Shanghai, the ship had already set off.
他到达上海时,轮船已经开走了。
◎ while的含义是during the time that,只能用于指一段时间(从句的谓语动词必须是延续性的),从句与主句里面的谓语动词所表示的动作只能同时发生,不能一先一后发生。
While I was reading, my mother was washing clothes.
我读书时,妈妈在洗衣服。

◎这两个词还可以用作并列连词。when表示“在那时”或“这时突然”,相当于and just at that time的意思,用来连接两个并列分句,有时when分句之前有逗号把前后两个分句分开。
I stayed till sunset, when it began to rain.
我一直呆到太阳下山,这时天开始下雨了。
◎ while意为“而”,“却”,表示对照关系。
Some like collecting stamps, while others like planting flowers.
有些人喜欢集邮,而有些人却喜欢种花。
6. You have probably never heard of Amy Winterbourne. (P122) 你可能从来没有听说过Amy Winterbourne。
【知识归纳】hear, hear from, hear of与hear that clause的用法:
(1)hear单独使用表示“听见”,“听到”,常用的结构有:
◎ hear sb/sth“听到某人或某物的声音”。
I can’t hear you at all. 我根本就听不到你的声音。
Haven’t you heard anything? 难道你没有听到什么声音?
◎ hear sb do sth“听到某人做某事”。

 
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