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重点、难点、考点及疑点注释
1.  by asking the teacher for help(P2)通过向老师寻求帮助
(1)“ask+sb+for+名词”意为“向某人请求……”;“向某人要求……”。
They asked me for help.他们向我求助。
We asked our PE teacher for a football.我们请求体育老师给我们一个足球。
(2)by作介词时,后接动词-ing形式,这是中考的重点,大家可不要忘记啊!
◎“通过……的方式”。
Mr Green makes a living by teaching.格林先生以教书为生。
◎“经过(某人/某物)”。
He went by the supermarket on his way to school.
在去上学的路上,他经过那家超市。
◎“在……旁边,在……附近”。
Li Lei sits by my side in the classroom.在教室里,李雷坐在我的旁边。
◎“在……之前,不迟于……”。
I can finish doing my homework by six o’clock. 我能在6点之前做完作业。
◎表示交通方式,意为“乘……”。
I usually go to school by bike. 我通常骑自行车去上学。
特别提示
by作副词时,相当于near,意为“靠近”。
The thief stole the money when no one was by.当旁边无人的时候,小偷偷走了钱。
短语链语
◎by and by “不久”,“一会儿”。
It’s 12 o’clock now and we will go home by and by.
现在12点了,过一会儿我们就要回家了。
◎by the way “顺便说一下”。
By the way, I forgot to tell you the news. 哦,对了,我忘记告诉你那个消息了。
2.  He’s been learning English for six years and really loves it. (P4)他已经学了六年的英语,而且的确很喜欢它。
He’s是He has的缩写。这是一个现在完成进行时态的句子,由“助动词have/has+been+现在分词”构成,用来表示动作从过去某一时间开始,一直延续到现在,可能还要延续下去。请看: (来源:英语麦当劳-英语学习门户 http://www.EnglishCN.com)
Mr Green has been lying in bed for two weeks. 格林先生已经卧床两个星期了。
We have been teaching in this school for eight and a half years.
我们在这所学校教书已经8年半了。
3.  She added that having conversations with friends was not helpful at all. (P4)她补充说,和朋友交谈一点帮助都没有。
(1)add的常见意思为“增加,添上,加上”。在本句中表示在说完上面的话语后又添加一些话语,是“又说,补充说”的意思。
It will add to your troubles. 这将会给你们增添麻烦的。
Mr Smith added that he would be back soon.
史密斯先生补充说他很快就会回来。
(2)at all与not, no, nothing, nobody, nowhere等表示否定意义的词连用,用来加强否定意义,表示“完全不,一点儿都不,丝毫不”的意思。
He doesn’t like swimming at all.他一点儿都不喜欢游泳。

There is nothing in the room at all.房间里面什么东西都没有。
◎not at all单独使用时,用来回答对方的感谢或道歉,相当于That’ s all right, You’re welcome等。但是,You’re welcome主要用于美国英语中,而英国人则多用Not at all。
—Thank you very much for your help.非常感谢你的帮助!
—Not at all./That’ s all right./You’re welcome.别客气。
4.  We get excited about something and then end up speaking in Chinese. (P4) 有些话题让我们兴奋不已 ,最后干脆说起汉语来。
(1)be/get excited about意思是“对……感到兴奋”,其中about后可接名词、代词或动词-ing形式。
She got excited about it as soon as she heard the good news.
她一听到那个好消息,就变得很兴奋。
Are you excited about going to Shanghai? 你对去上海感到兴奋吗?
类似短语
be/get worried about “对……感到担心”,be amazed at“对……感到惊讶”,be pleased with“对……感到满意”。
(2)excited表示某人对某物或某事“感到兴奋,激动”,主语常为人。
We were excited when we saw our team was winning.
看到自己的球队要赢了,我们都十分激动。
特别提示
exciting作“令人激动的”,“令人兴奋的”解时,常用来修饰物或事。
The football match we watched was very exciting.
我们观看的那场足球赛非常激动人心。
(3)end up意为“达到某状态或采取某行动,以……结束或告终”,后面接动词-ing形式。
He ended up running a firm. 他最终经营了一家公司。
类似短语
finish up“完成”, eat up“吃光”, burn up“烧光”。
5. Maybe you should join an English language club. (P5)也许你应该参加某个英语俱乐部。
(1)maybe和may be虽然写法相似,意思也相似,但是用法区别很大。maybe是副词,意为“也许,可能”,用作状语;may be意为“也许是,可能是”,may是情态动词,与be一起作谓语。
Maybe you put it there. 也许你把它放在那里了。
But I’m afraid I may be a little late. 但恐怕我可能是晚了一点。
(2)join意为“参加,加入”,主要指参加、加入某党派、团体,成为一员,后面也可跟us, them, the young people等表示一群人的词或词组;而 take part in也意为“参加,加入”,指参加群众性的活动、会议、考试、竞赛等。
My brother joined the League two years ago. 我的哥哥两年前就入团了。
We are getting ready to take part in the speech contest.
我们正准备参加这次演讲比赛。

 
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