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21. The Romans used all of the following to make water pipes EXCEPT _________.
(A) earth (B) wood (C) copper (D) stone
22. Covered channels were used instead of pipes to supply large quantities of water probably because _________.
(A) the Romans could build them more cheaply
(B) these channels could follow uneven ground more easily
(C) the Romans could not build large pipes
(D) these channels avoided rapid changes of pressure
23. The use of ‘grace’ in line 15 suggests that the aqueducts today are _________.
(A) hideous (B) divine (C) useful (D) attractive
24. In order to calculate the volume of water flowing through a pipe, it is important to know its speed and ________.
(A) the area across the end of the pipe (B) the length of the pipe
(C) the water pressure in the pipe (D) the level from which the water falls
25. The main subject of the passage is concerned essentially with __________.
(A) the classical scientific achievements
(B) the theoretical Greek hydrostatics
(C) the ancient Roman hydraulic system
(D) the early European architectural designing
Questions 26—30
Every day of our lives we are in danger of instant death from small high-speed missiles from space—the lumps of rocky or metallic debris which continuously bombard the Earth. The chances of anyone actually being hit, however, are very low, although there are recorded instances of ‘stones from the sky’ hurting people, and numerous accounts of damage to buildings and other objects. At night this extraterrestrial material can be seen as ‘fireballs’ or ‘shooting stars’, burning their way through our atmosphere. Most, on reaching our atmosphere, become completely vaporised.
The height above ground at which these objects become sufficiently heated to be visible is estimated to be about 60-100 miles. Meteorites that have fallen on buildings have sometimes ended their long lonely space voyage incongruously under beds, inside flower pots or even, in the case of one that landed on a hotel in North Wales, within a chamber pot. Before the era of space exploration it was confidently predicted that neither men nor space vehicles would survive for long outside the protective blanket of the Earth’s atmosphere. It was thought that once in space they would be seriously damaged as a result of the incessant downpour of meteorites falling towards our planet at the rate of many millions every day. Even the first satellites showed that the danger from meteorites had been greatly overestimated by the pessimists, but although it has not happened yet, it is certain that one day a spacecraft will be badly damaged by a meteorite. (来源:EnglishCN.com)
The greatest single potential danger to life on Earth undoubtedly comes from outside our planet. Collision with another astronomical body of any size or with a ‘black hole’ could completely destroy the Earth almost instantly. Near misses of bodies larger than or comparable in size to our own planet could be equally disastrous to mankind as they might still result in total or partial disruption. If the velocity of impact were high, collision with even quite small extraterrestrial bodies might cause catastrophic damage to the Earth’s atmosphere, oceans and outer crust and thus produce results inimical to life as we know it. The probability of collision with a large astronomical body from outside our Solar System is extremely low, possibly less than once in the lifetime of an average star. We know, however, that our galaxy contains great interstellar dust clouds and some astronomers have suggested that there might also be immense streams of meteorite matter in space that the Solar system may occasionally encounter. Even if we disregard this possibility, our own Solar system itself contains a great number of small astronomical bodies, such as the minor planets or asteroids and the comets, some with eccentric orbits that occasionally bring them close to the Earth’s path.
26. According to the writer, the Earth is being continuously bombarded by _________.
(A) big bright stars from space
(B) man-made space vehicles
(C) great interstellar dust clouds
(D) small high-speed pieces of rock from space
27. The word “vaporised” (para.1) means _________.
(A) turned from stones into missiles
(B) turned from a fireball into black
(C) turned from a solid into a gas
(D) turned from meteors into shooting stars
28. Why was it once thought that no spacecraft would survive for very long in space?
(A) People believed that spacecraft would be destroyed in a black hole.
(B) People believed that spacecraft would be misguided by missiles.
(C) People believed that spacecraft would be collided with a star.
(D) People believed that spacecraft would be damaged by meteorites.
29. What is the greatest danger to life on Earth?
(A) Collision with small high-speed missiles.
(B) Collision with an astronomical body.
(C) Collision with stones from the sky.
(D) Collision with spacecrafts.
30. According to the passage, which of the following statements is true?
(A) Our galaxy contains great interstellar dust clouds.
(B) Near misses of bodies smaller than our own planet could be disastrous.
(C) The probability of collision with a large astronomical body is very high.
(D) The chances of anyone actually being hit by missiles are very high.
SECTION 3: TRANSLATION TEST (1) (30 minutes)
Directions: Translate the following passage into Chinese and write your version in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.
The culture of any society is usually thought to be of two kinds: material and nonmaterial. Material culture includes the man-made phenomena which have physical properties such as height, breadth, and weight. A boat, a machine, a house—all these objects are part of the material culture. The nonmaterial culture is that portion of the environment which surrounds man and which has an impact on his behavior but which lacks these material properties: values, beliefs, traditions, and all the other habits and ideas invented and acquired by man as a member of society.
Contemporary sociological theory tends to assign primary importance to the nonmaterial culture in choosing problems for study. It assumes, for example, that boats, planes, automobiles, and so forth, are not nearly so important as the traditions we have developed which make their manufacture possible—indeed, which prescribe how we are to use them. The emphasis of contemporary sociology is to insist that the material culture would not exist had not the nonmaterial culture first been available to suggest the ideas which are embodied in the inventions of material culture.
SECTION 4: TRANSLATION TEST (2) (30 minutes)
Directions: Translate the following passage into English and write your version in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.
进入耶鲁大学的校园,看到莘莘学子青春洋溢的脸庞,呼吸着书香浓郁的空气,我不由回想起40年前在北京清华大学度过的美好时光。当年老师们对我的教诲,同学们给我的启发,我至今仍受用不尽。
耶鲁大学以悠久的发展历史、独特的办学风格、卓著的学术成就闻名于世。如果时光能够倒流几十年,我真希望成为你们中的一员。耶鲁大学校训强调追求光明和真理,这符合人类进步的法则,也符合每个有志青年的心愿。
参考答案:
SECTION ONE:LISTENING TEST
PART A SPOT DICTATION

1. the trend 
2. cancer and heart disease
3. similar and a reviving jolt
4. a long tradition
5. at 5 o'clock
6. smiling hostess
7. disturbed
8. deserve to be shot
9. do adore
10. down the wash basin
11. breakfast
12. Then, after lunch
13. at night
14. following circumstances
15. exhausted
16. Before you go out
17. for some time
18. follow my example
19. cups of black coffee
20. most unusual drinks
PART B LISTENING COMPREHENSION

Statements:
1-5 CCBDC
6-10 DADBB
L&C
11-14 CBAD
15-18 CBAD
19-22 DCBA
23-26 CBDA
27-30 CADB
PART C LISTENING AND TRANSLATIONG

Sentence translation

1. 昨天我们过的很愉快。我们先去了情人港(达令港)吃午饭,然后开车在悉尼市内兜风,看了看这个城市。
2. 中国经济明年预计增长超过8%,大多数投资专家都对明年的经济形势表示非常乐观。
3. 尽管身边环境过于拥挤,且工作时间过长,带来很大压力,但日本的男性普遍寿命都达到75岁,而女性平均寿命达81岁。
4. 虽然工程师们无法确定,新计划是否会有效,但它看起来是解决问题的好方法,至少书面上看起来是这样。
5. 很多美国的高中生在考试中作弊。在我们最近调查的八千名学生中,70%的学生承认在最近一学年中至少做过一次作弊。

Passage translation

1. 自从我父母离婚之后,我从一个被宠坏的孩子,转变成了一个通情达理的大学生。在父母离婚前,我认为母亲就应该服侍我。母亲为我洗衣服,做饭,洗碗,甚至还为我铺床。我15岁时父亲离开了我们,然后一切都变了。母亲找了份全职工作来供养我们,我就成了那个有时间来做家务的人。同时,我还在周末做兼职来挣自己的零花钱。生活不易,但我很高兴自己不再是那个被宠坏的孩子了。
2. 与政府存在合约关系的美国公司经常面临这样的选择,究竟购买价格昂贵的美国产的产品,还是价格低廉的外国出产的产品。如果某公司选择购买美国产品,可能会因为未能把价格压低而激怒纳税人。但如果购买外国产品,则可能让美国工人面临失去工作的危险。最近,美国国会通过法律,勒令与政府签过合同的美国公司优先考虑本国产品和服务。
SECTION 2: STUDY SKILLS
1-5 B D D C A 6-10 A B D B C
11-15 B D C D C 16-20 C A B D D
21-25 B A D A C 26-30 D C D B A

 
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