n The ascension of terraces culminates at the summit, which is the Garden of Eden. Virgil, as a pagan, is a permanent denizen of Limbo, the first circle of Hell; thus, he may not enter Paradise. Beatrice then becomes the second guide
n the nine spheres of Heaven (九重天):
n Sphere 1: Moon （月球 天） - Faithfulness marred by inconstancy; those who abandoned their vows （正人君子）.
n Sphere 2: Mercury （水星天）- Service marred by ambition; those who did good out of a desire for fame （力行善事者）.
n Sphere 3: Venus （金星天） - Love marred by wantonness; those who did good out of love （博爱者）.
n Sphere 4: Sun （太阳天） - Wisdom; Theologians （先知）.
n Sphere 5: Mars （火星天） - Courage; the martyrs, warriors, and confessors（殉道者）.
n Sphere 6: Jupiter （木星天）- Justice; Rulers（英明君主）.
n Sphere 7: Saturn （土星天）- Temperance; monks and hermits （修道士）.
n Sphere 8: The Stars （恒星天） - the apostles and saints （耶稣与其众弟子）.
n Sphere 9: The Prime Mover （原动天）– angels （众天使）.
n ►The Empyrean (最高天): the Holy Trinity, the Virgin, the Angels and the Saints
(3) Geoffrey Chaucer乔叟，杰弗里& The Canterbury Tales（坎特伯雷故事集）
n Chaucer (1340-1400): An English poet, he is regarded as the first short story teller and the first modern poet in English literature.
乔叟，杰弗里：(1340?-1400) 英国诗人，被认为是中世纪英国最伟大的文学家。他的作品包括公爵夫人之书 （1369年）， 特洛伊拉斯和克莱希斯 （C.1385年）以及他的杰作 坎特伯雷故事集 (1387-1400年）
n One of his major contribution is that he wrote his works mostly in the dialect used by common Londoners instead of in Latin or French (We must remember that after the Norman conquest in 1066, for a long time the scholars wrote in Latin, and the courtier in French, while the common people spoke old English, namely, the Anglo-Saxon. For example, the commoners used “calf,” “swine,” and “sheep” for the animals they tended, while the Norman lords used “veal,” “pork,” and “mutton” for the flesh served at their table). After Chaucer’s efforts, Normans and English began to intermingle, thus creating what we know as modern English. (来源：英语杂志 http://www.EnglishCN.com)
n The Canterbury Tales, containing twenty four tales told by a group of pilgrims on their journey to Canterbury, a famous Church, was his most popular work for their power of observation, piercing irony, sense of humor and warm humanity.
9.Art and Architecture
n Art in the Middle ages was inseparable from religion. It was infused with spiritual symbolism and meaning.
n Art had a didactic as well as an artistic purpose in medieval times, because the majority of people were unable to read.
n The purpose of art was to awe and inspire the viewer with the grandeur of God. It also served to symbolize what people believed. Pope Gregory the Great said, "painting can do for the illiterate what writing does for those who read."
(1) The Romanesque罗马式 Period
n Romanesque art refers to the artistic style (esp. style of architecture) that prevailed throughout most of Europe during 11th and 12th centuries. “Romanesque” means “in the Roman manner,” referring to its emulation of the pattern and style of Roman art (esp. the pattern and proportion of the architecture of the Roman Empire) in its fusion of Roman, Carolingian, Byzantine, and local Germanic traditions.
n The chief characteristics of the Romanesque architecture were barrel vaults (筒形[桶形]拱顶), round arches (拱门), thick piers (柱子), and few windows. In general they were heavy and solid, carrying about them an air of solemnity and gloom.
n Sculpture and painting, mostly in churches, developed a wonderful unity with the architecture. Both arts often are imbued with symbolism and allegory. They are not based on natural forms but use deliberate distortions for expressive impact.
(2) The Gothic（哥特式的） Style
n Beginning in 12th century France a new style of architecture and decoration emerged. At the time it was called simply "The French Style," but later Renaissance critics, appalled at the abandonment of classical line and proportion, derisively called it "Gothic.“ This was a reference to the imagined lack of culture of the barbarian tribes, including the Goths, which had ransacked Rome in the twilight of the Roman Empire.
n Gothic architecture is light, spacious, and graceful. Advances in architectural technique learned from contacts with the Arab world during the Crusades led to innovations such as the pointed arch, ribbed vault, and the buttress. Heavy Romanesque piers were replaced by slender clusters of columns. Window sizes grew enormously, as did the height of vaults and spires.
n A late Gothic chantry chapel at Winchester Cathedral Sculpture became free standing rather than being incorporated in columns. The new expanse of window space was filled with gloriously rich coloured glass. The easiest point of reference to look for in a Gothic church is the pointed arch, seen in window openings and doors. Also, the later Gothic churches had very elaborate decoration, especially the "tracery", or stonework supporting the stained glass windows.