Spread of effect
Rewards affect not only the connection that produced them but temporally adjacent connections as well. (来源：英语学习门户网站EnglishCN.com)
Wilbur Lang Schramm (1907-1987)
Wilbur Lang Schramm was born in Marietta, Ohio, August 5, 1907, and died in Honolulu, Hawaii, December 27, 1987. His degrees were A.B., Marietta College, 1928; A.M., Harvard University, 1930; and Ph.D., University of Iowa, 1932. Schramm taught English at Iowa, 1935-1943, also founding and editing American Prefaces, serving as the first director of the Iowa Writers’ Workshop, and taking time to work for the publishing firm Harcourt Brace and to serve in federal war information agencies. He was director of the School of Journalism at Iowa, 1943-1947. Schramm then was dean or director of mass communication programs at the University of Illinois, Stanford University, and the East-West Center, University of Hawaii. He was a prolific author and editor in American literature and mass communication.
The papers concern creative writing, journalism education at Iowa, and Schramm’s own writings. Correspondents include Stuart Daggett, W. Earl Hall, Harry K. Newburn, Harold Ober (Schramm’s literary agent), Arthur M. Schlesinger, and Ray B. West.
Writings on Schramm’s career include Jacqueline Marie Cartier, “Wilbur Schramm and the Beginnings of American Communication Theory: A History of Ideas,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Iowa, 1988; Steven H. Chaffee, ed., “Contributions of Wilbur Schramm to Mass Communication Research,” Journalism Monographs 36 (1974); Timothy Richard Glander, “Education and the Mass Media: The Origins of Mass Communications Research in the United States, 1939-1955,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, 1990; Carol Christensen Oukrop, “A History of the University of Iowa School of Journalism, from Its Founding in 1924 under C.H. Weller, through the Tenure of Wilbur Schramm as Director, June 1947,” M.A. thesis, University of Iowa, 1965; Everett M. Rogers and Steven H. Chaffee, “Communication and Journalism from ‘Daddy’ Bleyer to Wilbur Schramm: A Palimpsest,” Journalism Monographs 148 (1994); and Wallace E. Stegner, “The Iowa Years,” in Communication Research: A Half-Century Appraisal, edited by Daniel Ferner and Lyle M. Nelson, p. 305-310 (Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, 1977).
Carl Ranson. Rogers(1902-1987 )
Carl Ransom Rogers (1902-1987) was the most influential psychotherapist in American history. He pioneered a major new approach to psychotherapy, known successively as the "nondirective," "client-centered," and "person-centered" approach. He was the first person in history to record and publish complete cases of psychotherapy.He carried out and encouraged more scientific research on counseling and psychotherapy than had ever been undertaken anywhere.
More than any individual, he was responsible for the spread of professional counseling and psychotherapy beyond psychiatry and psychoanalysis to all the helping professions - psychology, social work, education, ministry, lay therapy, and others. He was a leader in the development and dissemination of the intensive therapeutic group experience sometimes called the "encounter group." He was a leader in the humanistic psychology movement of the 1960s through the 1980s which continues to exert a profound influence on society and the professions. He was a pioneer in applying the principles of effective interpersonal communications to resolving intergroup and international conflict. He was one of the helping professions' most prolific writers, authoring sixteen books and more than two hundred professional articles and research studies. Millions of copies of his books have been printed, including more than sixty foreign-language editions of his works.
In this volume we present the scope of that life's work - its breadth across so many areas of professional and human interest and its depth in exploring a few central themes basic to all human relationships. Whatever the section - on therapy, personal growth education, science, philosophy, social issues, or Rogers's own life - the personal, the professional, and the political are always present. Whatever the time of publication - with selections from 1942 to 1987, as well as previously unpublished writings - Rogers's unique, personal style of communication is evident.
Carl Rogers's influence, however, was due to much more than his writings. He also pioneered in using innovative nonprint media to popularize his ideas. The American Academy of Psychotherapists' tape library distributed thousands of copies of his therapeutic interviews to professionals around the world. He was often filmed conducting therapy or intensive group sessions. In the famous Gloria film series (Rogers et al., 1962), a single client was interviewed successively by Rogers, by gestalt therapist Fritz Perls, and by rational-emotive therapist Albert Ellis. The film Journey into Self (Farson, 1970), showing Rogers leading an encounter group, won an Academy Award for Best Feature Length Documentary and received major national distribution.