玄学派诗歌 metaphysical poetry
1. 玄学派诗歌概念 (来源：英语交友 http://friends.englishcn.com)
玄学派诗歌，'metaphysical poetry' 玄学派诗歌主要是指英国十七世纪深受约翰.邓恩（1572-1631）影响的诗人的作品。
John Donne 约翰.邓恩便是“玄学派”的代表人物。他的诗歌给人一种固有的戏剧性，展示了看上去零散多样的经历与观念，以及漫无边际的情感与心境。他的诗歌形式是动态的，语言别致精巧，意象栩栩如生，韵律生动活泼，与其他单纯静谧，乐感十足而平淡无奇的伊丽莎白时代爱情诗相比大相径庭。邓恩诗作最显著的特点是那强烈的现实主义气息，也就是说诗中的反映不是诗意的世界而是现实的世界。除了邓恩，玄学派诗人的代表还有赫伯特，沃恩，克拉肖，马韦尔及考利。
The term 'metaphysical poetry' is commonly used to name the work of the 17th-century writers who wrote under the influence of John Donne(1572-1631).With a rebellious spirit,the metaphysical poets tried to break away from the conventional fashion of the Elizabethan love poetry.The diction is simple as compared with that of the Elizabethan or the Neoclassic periods,and echoes the words and cadences of common speech.The imagery is drawn from the actual life.The form is frequently that of an argument with the poet's beloved,with God,or with himeself.Donne and his followers,due to the change of the taste,were rarely read during the 18th and early 19th centuries.However,the late 19th and early 20th centuries witnessed a renewed interest in Donne and other metaphysical poets.This new recognition has arisen from a realization of the seriousness of their art,an interest in their spirit of revolt,their realism,and other affinities with modern interests,as well as from the fact that they produced some fine poetry.T.S.Eliot,John Ransom,and Allen Tate are examples of modern poets who have been mostly affected by the metaphysical influence.
John Donne is the leading figure of the 'metaphysical school'.His poems give a more inherently theatrical impression by exhibiting a seemingly unfocused diversity of experiences and attitudes,and a free range of feelings and moods.The mode is dynamic rather than static,with ingenuity of speech,vividness of imagery and vitality of thythms,which show a notable contrast to the other Elizabethan lyric poems which are pure,serene,tuneful,and smooth-running.The most striking features of Donne's poetry is precisely its tang of reality,in the sense that it seems to reflect life in a real rather than a poetical world.Herbert,Vaughan,Crashaw,Marvell and Cowley are also considered to be metaphysical poets.