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Sleepwalking

 

    Not all sleep is the same every night. We experience some deep, quiet sleep and some active sleep, which is when dreams happen. You might think sleepwalking would happen during active sleep, but a person isn’t physically active during active sleep. Sleepwalking usually happens in the first few hours of sleep in the stage called slow-wave or deep sleep. (来源:英语聊天室 http://chat.EnglishCN.com)

    Now all sleepwalkers actually walk. Some simply sit up or stand in bed or act like they’re awake when in fact, they’re sleep! Most, however, do get up and move around for a few seconds or for as long as half an hour.

    Sleepwalkers’ eyes are open, but they don’t see the same way they do when they’re awake and often think they’re in different rooms of the house or different places altogether. Sleepwalkers tend to go back to bed on their own and they won’t remember it in the morning.

    Researchers estimated that about 15% of kids sleepwalk regularly. Sleepwalking may run in families and sometimes occurs when a person is sick, has a fever, is not getting enough sleep, or is stressed.

    If sleepwalking occurs frequently, every night or so, it’s a good idea for your mom or dad to take you to see your doctor. But occasional sleepwalking generally isn’t something to worry about, although it may look funny or even scary for the people who see a sleepwalker in action.

    Although occasional sleepwalking isn’t a big deal, it’s important, of course, that the person is kept safe, precautions should be taken so the person is less likely to fall down, run into something, or walk out the front door while sleepwalking.

 

1.     Sleepwalking usually occurs ___.

A.     during deep sleep

B.     during active sleep

C.     during dreams

D.     during quiet hours

 

2.     Which is true of most sleepwalkers?

A.     they simply sit up

B.     they simply stand in bed

C.     they act like they’re awake when asleep

D.     they get up and walk for some time

 

3.     Sleepwalkers usually go back to bed ___.

A.     after waking up

B.     after being woken up

C.     by themselves

D.     with the help of others

 

4.     You’d better go and see a doctor if you ___.

A come across sleepwalking often

B have never experienced sleepwalking

C sleepwalk occasionally

D sleepwalk frequently

 

5.     Precautions should be taken to ___.

A.     prevent people from sleepwalking

B.     keep sleepwalkers safe

C.     avoid running into sleepwalkers

D.     ensure the safety of people asleep

 

Passage 2

(语言难度B/C级)

 Adaptation of Living Things

 

    Certain animals and plants develop characteristics that help them cope with their environment better than others of their kind. This natural biological process is called adaptation. Among the superior characteristics developed through adaptation are those that may help in getting food or shelter, in providing protection, and in producing and protecting the young. That results in the evolution of more and more organisms that are better fitted to their environments.

    Each living thing is adapted to its way of life in a general way, but each is adapted especially to its own distinct class. A plant, for example, depends upon its roots to fix itself firmly and to absorb water and inorganic chemicals. It depends upon its green leaves for using the sun's energy to make food from inorganic chemicals. These are general adaptations, common to most plants. In addition, there are special adaptations that only certain kinds of plants have.

    Many animals have adaptations that help them escape from their enemies. Some insects are hidden by their body color or shape, and many look like a leaf or a little branch. The coats of deer are colored to mix with the surroundings. Many animals have the ability to remain completely still when an enemy is near.

Organisms have a great variety of ways of adapting. They may adapt in their structure, function, and genetics; in their development and production of the young; and in other respects. An organism may create its won environment, as do warm-blooded mammals, which have the ability to adjust body heat exactly to maintain their ideal temperature despite changing weather.  Usually adaptations are an advantage, but sometimes an organism is so well adapted to a particular environment that, if conditions change, it finds it difficult or impossible to readapt to the new conditions.

 

1. Some plants and animals develop superior characteristics so that they may

A. help others of their kind get food, shelter and other things needed.

B. survive even in extremely severe conditions

C. become better adapted to the environments than others of their kind.

D. result in the evolution and production of more intelligent organisms.

 

2. In the first paragraph, the word "environments" could best be replaced by

A. contexts

B. surroundings

C. neighbors

D. enemies

 

3. It can be inferred from this passage that the feathers of a bird care colored

A. to frightened its enemies.

B. to attract its enemies

C. to adjust its body heat

D. to match its environment

 

4. Which of the following is not directly mentioned?

A. A living thing may adapt in its structure.

B. An organism may adapt in its function.

C. A living creature may adapt in its genetic makeup.

D. A living organism may adapt in its sleeping habit.

 

5. The author cites the behavior of warm-blooded mammals in order to illustrate which of the following?

A. A living thing may have the ability to create an environment of its own

B. A living creature may have the ability to remain still when an enemy is near.

C. A living creature may have the ability to make food from its inorganic chemicals

D. A living creature may have the ability to change the color of its skin.

 

Passage 3

(语言难度B/C级)

Will Quality Eat up the U.S. Lead in Software?

 

      If U.S. software companies don't pay more attention to quality, they could kiss their business good-bye. Both India and Brazil are developing a world-class software industry. Their weapon is quality and one of their jobs is to attract the top U.S. quality specialists whose voices are not listened to in their country.

      Already, of the world's 12 software houses that have earned the highest rating in the world, seven are in India. That's largely because they have used new methodologies rejected by American software specialists. For example, for decades, quality specialists, W. Edwards Deming and J. M. Juran had urged U.S. software companies to change their attitudes to quality. But their quality call mainly fell on deaf ears in the U.S -- but not in Japan. By the 1970s and 1980s, Japan was grabbing market share with better, cheaper products. They used Deming's and Juran's ideas to bring down the cost of good quality to as little as 5% of total production costs. In U.S. factories, the cost of quality then was 10 times as high: 50%. In software, it still is.

      Watts S. Humphrey spent 27 years at IBM heading up software production and then quality assurance. But his advice was seldom paid attention to. He retired from IBM in 1986. In 1987, he worked out a system for assessing and improving software quality. It has proved its value time and again. For example, in 1990 the cost of quality at Raytheon Electronics Systems was almost 60% of total software production costs. It tell to 15% in 1996 and has since further dropped to below 10%.

Like Deming and Juran, Humphrey seems to be winning more praises overseas than at home. The Indian government and several companies have just founded the Watts Humphrey Software Quality Institute at the Software Technology Park in Chennai, India. Let's hope that U.S. lead in software will not be eaten up by its quality problems.

 

1. What country has more highest-rating companies in the world than any other country has?

A) India.

B) The US.

C) Brazil.

D) Germany.

 

2. Which of the following statements about Humphrey is tree?

A) He is now still an IBM employer.

B) He has worked for IBM for 37 years.    

C) India honors him highly.

D) The US pays much attention to his quality advice.

 

3.By what means did Japan grab its large market share by the 1970s and the 1980s?    

A)Its advertising was most successful.

B)Its products were cheaper in price and better in quality.

C) The US hardware industry was lagging behind.

D) Japan hired a lot of Indian software specialists.

 

4. What does the founding of the Watts Humphrey Software Quality Institute symbolize?

A) It symbolizes the US determination to move ahead with its software.    

B) It symbolizes the Japanese efforts to solve the software quality problem.

C) It symbolizes the Indian ambition to take the lead in software.

D) It symbolizes the Chinese policy on importing software.

 

5.   What is the writer worrying about?

A) Many US software specialists are working for Japan.

B) The quality problem has become a worldwide problem.    

C)India and Japan are joining hands to compete with the US.

D) The US will no longer be the first software player in the world.

 参考答案:

Passage 1:

Sleepwalking

1. A。 分析: 问题问“梦游病通常在什么时候发生?”被选项中有两个选项涉及到sleep(睡眠), 所以首先利用sleep和问题句中的核心词Sleepwalking共同作为答案线索, 这样找到答案相关句:

(第一段)Not all sleep is the same every night. We experience some deep, quiet sleep and some active sleep, which is when dreams happen. 这两个句子中都没有出现“Sleepwalking” , 所以暂时不看。 下面的两个句子中两个线索词都出现了, 所以重点关注: You might think sleepwalking would happen during active sleep, but a person isn’t physically active during active sleep. 该句说“你可能认为梦游发生在睡眠活跃的阶段, 但是处于睡眠活跃阶段时, 人的身体并不活跃”。该句没有回答问题,所以接着看下面的句子:  Sleepwalking usually happens in the first few hours of sleep in the stage called slow-wave or deep sleep.该句说“梦游病通常发生在被称为慢波睡眠或深层睡眠阶段的前几个小时内”,因此判断A是答案。

 

2. D。分析: 问题问“有关大多数的梦游病患者的说法下列哪一种是正确的?”题干中出现了修饰词most,可以利用这个词作为答案线索, 同时注意到被选项都涉及到描述具体动作的行为动词/动词短语,因此重点关注文章中出现动作描述的句子, 这样找到答案相关句:

    (第2段)Now all sleepwalkers actually walk. Some simply sit up or stand in bed or act like they’re awake when in fact, they’re sleep! Most, however, do get up and move around for a few seconds or for as long as half an hour. 该句中出现了most, 而且还出现了具体的行为动词, 因此判断该句很可能就是直接答案相关句。 该句说“然而大多数梦游病患者的确会起床下地行走几秒钟,有的甚至达到半个小时”, 因此判断D是答案。

考点:考察代词的指代内容。

   

3. C. 分析:问题说“梦游病患者通常返回到床上___.”被选项中有两个选项(A和B)是结构相似的时间状语结构,而C和D都是表示“方式”的状语结构, 因此推断A和B中可能出答案; C和D中可能出答案。 利用题干中的核心结构“go back to bed”作为答案线索,同时关注文章中出现的时间和方式状语结构, 这样找到答案相关句:

    (第3段)….Sleepwalkers tend to go back to bed on their own and they won’t remember it in the morning.该句中出现了“go back to bed”, 而且还出现了方式状语结构on their own, 因此判断该句很可能就是直接答案相关句. 该句说“梦游病患者往往(与问题句中的“usually”呼应)自己回到床上,而他们在早晨却并不记得他们在夜里梦游的事情”, 因此判断C是答案。

考点: 考察近义短语结构: by oneself = for oneself = on one’s own 独自地, 凭自己力量

   

4. D.分析: 问题说“如果…, 你最好去看医生.”该题可以借助常识直接判断D(经常性地梦游)是答案。 该题也可以借助文章中相关句来判断答案, 利用问题句中出现的新信息结构(核心结构)“go and see a doctor”作为答案线索, 这样找到答案相关句:

(第5段)If sleepwalking occurs frequently, every night or so, it’s a good idea for your mom or dad to take you to see your doctor. 该句说“如果梦游发生频繁,比如大约每晚都发生, 你应该让你的爸爸或妈妈带你去看医生。”, 因此判断D是答案。

考点: 形式主语所在的句子结构。

 

5. B. 分析: 问题句说“应该采取预防措施从而…”.(take –adopt采取). 该题可以借助常识判断B(使梦游者安全)是答案. 也可以借助文章中的相关语句判断答案: 利用问题句中出现的核心词(主语) Precautions作为答案线索, 这样找到答案相关句: Although occasional sleepwalking isn’t a big deal, it’s important, of course, that the person is kept safe, precautions should be taken so the person is less likely to fall down, run into something, or walk out the front door while sleepwalking.该句中的划线结构说“应该采取预防措施, 这样当梦游病患者在梦游的时候就不会跌倒,撞到什么东西上, 或走出大门外。”, 根据部分内容判断B是答案。

 

Passage 2

Adaptation of Living Things
1. C。该题的直接答案相关句是文章第一句。

2. B。surroundings 和environment是近义词,所以B正确。

3. D。该题的直接答案相关句是第3段的一句话:The coats of deer are colored to mix with the surroundings。

4. D。文章提到了一种生命为了适应环境可以改变结构(A),功能(B)和基因构造(C),但没有说可以改变睡眠习惯。

5. A。直接答案相关句在最后一段的第3个句子。

 

Passage 3

 

Will Quality Eat up the U.S. Lead in Software?

1. A。第2段第1句是答案依据。

2. C。文章倒数第2段说到,印度专门建立一个以Humphrey名字命名的软件质量研究所,可见对他的重视,所以选项C是正确的。

3.B。利用年代1970s, 1980s作为答案线索词,这样在第2段倒数第4句找到答案。

4. C。利用题干中的专有名词Software Quality Institute作为答案线索词,确认答案为C:与印度有关。

5. D。该题与文章的主题相关,借助文章的标题和文章中的最后一句话判断D是答案。

 

 
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